Gut microbiota: How does it interact with the brain?

ISLAMABAD, December 31 (online): Through studies in mice, researchers find evidence that having a healthful balance of gut microorganisms is important for good health.
Researchers have found evidence that gut microbiota also plays a role in mood regulation and brain function.
Gut microbiota is the community of bacteria, fungi, and viruses that live in the digestive tract.
These findings in mice suggest that changes to gut bacterial communities may lead or contribute to depression. If humans have a similar mechanism, doctors might be able to use bacteria strains to treat mood disorders, such as depression.
Researchers think this is because gut bacteria release metabolites, tiny bits of food broken down by digestion that influence brain function. Metabolites may impact mood regulation by acting on the endocannabinoid system.
The endocannabinoid system is a complex cell-signaling system consisting of lipid (fat)-based neurotransmitters and their receptors.
It is found throughout the body and plays a role in important aspects of health, such as immune and nervous system function and cellular communication in the nervous system. It also regulates emotions, moods, and stress responses by activation of the system’s main receptor, CB1.